Nuclear regulatory authority
The designated Danish regulatory authorities responsible for regulating nuclear safety and security, including waste safety, are the Danish Health Authority, Radiation Protection (DHARP) and the Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA), The Nuclear Regulatory Authorities are hence formed by DHARP and DEMA. The DHARP is in addition also the Regulatory Authority for radiation safety.
There are no nuclear power plants in Denmark. Originally, there were three research reactors at the Risø site - DR 1, DR 2 and DR 3:
- DR 1 is fully decommissioned and released from regulatory control;
- DR 2 is fully decommissioned, but the former reactor building is not jet released from regulatory control, as it serves as a handling and storage hall for decommissioning work associated with the decommissioning of the other nuclear facilities at the Risø site;
- DR 3: the decommissioining is ongoing and expected to be finalized within the next few years.
Facilities using ionising technologies in medicine, industry and research are in operation all over the country and transport of radioactive materials takes place. As of February 2020, DHARP has issued approximately 1100 licenses and registered around 900 notifications.
Radioactive waste and spent fuel management
According to Parliamentary Resolutions B48 and B90, the tasks of the state owned Danish Decommissioning (DD) is to dismantle the nuclear facilities at the Risø site, manage radioactive waste from the decommissioning activities as well as from institutional users of radioactive material in Denmark and to participate in the process for a long-term solution for the management of radioactive waste. At the same time, DD must maintain the facilities in a safe and secure state until they are fully decommissioned. DD’s tasks include in addition planning, analysis, demolition, decontamination and waste minimization, characterization, packaging and storage in temporary storage facilities until a new and upgraded storage facility is in operation at the Risø site. As stated in B90 the process for establishing a deep geological disposal facility for the radioactive waste has been initiated, and a thorough political process is organized with the involvement of relevant stakeholders. By 2073 at the latest, the stored waste must be transferred to such disposal facility.
There is no spent fuel management in Denmark and, according to Article 15.2 in the council Directive 2011/70/EURATOM of 19 July 2011, Denmark is not obligated to implement the provisions related to spent fuel as long as it does not have plans for the development of any activity related to nuclear fuel.
Main legal instruments
- Act no. 23 of 15 January 2018, on Ionising Radiation and Radiation Protection (The Radiation Protection Act)
- Act no. 244 of 12 Maj 1976 on Safety and Environmental Conditions at Nuclear Facilities, etc., only §§ 11 -12 is set into force (The Nuclear Safety Act)
- Act no. 170 of 16 May 1962, on Nuclear Installations (The Nuclear Installations Act)
- Consolidation Act no. 993 of 9 September 2014 on compensation for nuclear accidents and incidents
- Parliamentary Resolution B103, 1985 on Energy Planning without Nuclear Energy
- Parliamentary Resolution B48, 2003 on the Decommissioning of the Nuclear Facilities at Research Station, Risø
- Parliamentary Resolution B90, 2018 on a Long-Term Solution for Denmark’s Radioactive Waste
- Executive Order no. 669 of 1 July 2019 on Ionising Radiation and Radiation Protection
- Executive Order no. 670 of 1 July 2019 on Use of Radioactive Substances
- Executive Order no. 672 of 1 July 2019 on Transboundary Shipments of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel
- Executive Order no. 278 of 27 June 1963 on Protective Measures against Accidents at Nuclear Facilities, ect. - as changed according to Executive Order no. 502 of 10 January 1974
- Executive Order no. 1762 of 27 December 2016 on Security Measures for Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities and Drafting of Security Plans
- Executive Order no. 315 of 27 June 1972 on the Peaceful Control of Nuclear Materials
- Executive Order no. 993 of 5 December 2001 on Transport of Radioactive Material
Circulars and Circular Letters:
- Circular no. 15105 of 22 December 1975 on the 24/7 Expert Service at the Danish Health Authority, Radiation Protection
- Circular no. 3151 of 26 November 1964 on the Cooperation between the Danish Health Authority and the WEA
- Circular no. 9450 of 9 July 2020 on the regulatory control exercised by the nuclear regulatory authorities regarding the nuclear safety of nuclear installations, etc.
- Circular no. 9654 of 18 September 2020 on the tasks of the Danish Health Authority and the Danish Agency for Higher Education and Research concerning responsible and safe management of radioactive waste.
Operation Limits and Conditions:
- Operational Limits and Conditions for Danish Decommissioning issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Authorities
Last updated in February 2021