The international community has created, under auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a system of notification and warning as well as a system of international assistance in case of a nuclear or radiological incident or accident. Rules governing these systems are fixed in two emergency conventions: the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. These conventions, which are primary legal instruments, establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. They have been signed by allmost all EU Member States and IAEA member countries. Nevertheless, countries which have not signed these conventions still have a right to be informed and to ask for assistance if necessary. Within the framework of these conventions, the IAEA established an Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) which operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The IEC facilitates the transfer of information, assistance of any kind, as well as procurement and transfer of material means if a country needs them. The emergency management arrangements cover not only incidents at nuclear power plants but also those involving the transport and disposal of radioactive materials.