Nuclear regulatory authority
Key regulatory functions (legislation, licensing, assessment, inspection and enforcement) are carried out in Italy by the following main bodies:
- The Ministry of Economic Development is the authority which grants the licence/authorisation for nuclear activities.
- ISPRA (Institute for the environmental protection and research) is the governmental institute entrusted with the role of regulatory authority responsible for the assessment and inspection activities on nuclear installations, including the provision of binding technical advice to the ministry above. The approval of detailed designs or supervision of activities related to the construction of nuclear facilities also come under its responsibility.
- Local authorities should be notified about minor practices.
Four NPPs have been definitively shut down since the 1980s, their reactor cores have been defuelled, although two of them (Caorso and Trino) still have some spent fuel elements on-site. Decommissioning licences are going to be issued for these NPPs. Two uranium fuel fabrication installations are also going to be decommissioned – the decommissioning licence has already been issued for one of them. Fuel reprocessing and fabrication facilities have stopped their main activities and are preparing their decommissioning plans. One spent fuel storage facility (wet type) situated away from reactors remains in operation but there is a clearance plan in place. Four research reactors and a few temporary storage facilities for medical and industrial waste are in operation. Several medical units and industrial radioactive sources are operating. Much radioactive material is transported on a yearly basis. Support to the civil protection offices is provided for national and local radiological emergency preparedness.
Radioactive waste and spent fuel management
Main legal instruments
Act No. 241, issued in 1990 on Transparency of Public Administration, recognises, in general, the right of the public to have access to documents, decisions and to their background.
Regional administrations are called upon for advice and have their representatives in the independent technical committees which are set up according to the main nuclear laws.
Moreover, under the Environmental Impact Assessments procedure, brought into force by Act No. 349, issued in 1986, any application must be published in the most widely disseminated national newspaper by the applicant, who has to issue a non-technical summary of the activity with appropriate drawings to be made available to the public.
Finally, for emergency preparedness purposes, under Law No. 230, issued in 1995, information must be given to the public.